Association of Pharmacy Professionals

Editorial Board

EDITORIAL OFFICE

Editorial Office (India)

ROSE-350, New Minal Residency, J.K. Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
editorbpr@gmail.com
, editorbpr@rediffmail.com

Editorial Office (Korea)

Room No. 201, Smile Building, Sam-Phong Dong, Gyeongsan Gyeongbuk 712-749, Republic of Korea
editorbprkorea@gmail.com

Editorial Office (Switzerland)

10, Chemin des Perdrix, Plan les Ouates, 1228, Switzerland
editorbprswitzerland@gmail.com

Editorial Office (Canada)

558-E62 Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5X 2G4, Canada
editorbprcanada@rediffmail.com

Editorial Office (Bangladesh)

Flat No. 1 A, eternal Chandan Heights, 304, Sirajuddoulah Road, Chandanpura, Chhitagong, Bangladesh
editorbprbangladesh@rediffmail.com

Editorial Office (Malaysia)

C-12-11, Areena Green Apartments, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
editorbprmalaysia@rediffmail.com

Editorial Office (Libya)

27/3, Kariya  Sihaiya, Benghazi, Libya
editorbprlibya@rediffmail.com

Editorial Office (Sweden)

Apt K 11, Sveavagen 164, 11346 Stockholm, Sweden
editorbprsweden@rediffmail.com

 ___________________________________________________________________________

EDITORS  & PUBLISHER

Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Rajiv Dahiya Ph.D, FAPP, FICCE
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
editorbpr@gmail.com

Executive Editor

Dr. Sunita Dahiya Ph.D, FAPP, FICCE
Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
editorbprindia@gmail.com, editorbpr@rediffmail.com

Associate Editor

Dr. Vijay Urmaliya Ph.D, Post-doc
Center of Excellence for CVS Safety Research and Mechanistic Pharmacology, Janssen Research and Development, Antwerp, Belgium
vijay.urmaliya@gmail.com

Associate Editor

Dr. Vivek Kumar Bajpai Ph.D, Post-doc
Department of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Yeungnam University,
Republic of Korea
vbajpai04@yahoo.com

Associate Editor

Dr. Viney Lather Ph.D, Post-doc
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JCDM College of Pharmacy, Barnala Road, Sirsa,
Haryana, India
vinnylather@gmail.com

Associate Editor

Dr. Sachin Dubey Ph.D, Post-doc
Formulation Scientist, Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark
dubeysk@gmail.com

Associate Editor

Dr. Ajay G. Namdeo Ph.D, Post-doc
Department of Pharmacognosy, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune,
Maharashtra, India
ajay_namdeo@rediffmail.com

Assistant Editor

Dr. Kalpesh Gaur Ph.D
Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali Institute of Pharmacy, Dabok, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
assteditorbpr@gmail.com

Managing Editor

Dr. Hemendra Gautam Ph.D, FAPP, FICCE
Department of Pharmacology, Invertis Institute of Pharmacy, Invertis University, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
drhemendragautam@gmail.com

Production Editor

Mrs. Rita Mourya (Ph.D), FAPP, FISCA
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutions, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
ritz_pharma@yahoo.co.in

Publisher

Association of Pharmacy Professional (APP)
ROSE-350, New Minal Residency, J. K. Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
publisherbpr@rediffmail.com
, directorbpr@rediffmail.com

___________________________________________________________________________

NATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD

Prof. M. Himaja Ph.D
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, Tamilnadu
dr_himaja@yahoo.com

Prof. Rajesh Kumar Maheshwari Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, SGSITS, Park Road, Indore, Madhya Pradesh
rkrkmaheshwari@yahoo.co.in

Prof. A. N. Nagappa Ph.D
Department of Pharmacy Management, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka
anantha1232000@gmail.com

Prof. Mohd. Ali Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi
maliphyto@gmail.com

Prof. Mandava V. Basaveswara Rao Ph.D
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Krishna University, Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh
vbrmandava@yahoo.com

Prof. L. K. Nath Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam
lknath@yahoo.com

Prof. D. N. Mishra Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jhambeshwer University of Sciences and Technology, Hisar, Haryana
drdnmishra@yahoo.co.in

Prof. Lakshmi Kanta Ghosh Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bangal
lkghosh63@yahoo.co.in

Prof. Vimal Kumar Singhai Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
cognosy@gmail.com

Prof. Shailendra Saraf Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
shailendrasaraf@hotmail.com

Prof. A. N. Kalia Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, ISF College of Pharmacy, Ferozpur Road, Moga, Punjab
ankalia_47@rediffmail.com

Prof. S. K. Yadav Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Ravishankar College of Pharmacy, Bhanpur Bypass Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
skyadav55@rediffmail.com

Prof. Vijendra Singh Ph.D
Product Development/Research & Development, AIMIL Pharmaceuticals (India) Ltd., Patel Nagar, New Delhi
mahalwal
_vs@yahoo.com

Prof. S. K. Singh Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
sksingh.phe@itbhu.ac.in

Prof. A. K. Pathak Ph.D
Department of Pharmacy, Barkatullah University, Hosangabad Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
anupampathak@yahoo.com

Prof. R. Narayana Charyulu Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, NGSM Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka
charyulun@yahoo.co.in

Prof. Roop Krishen Khar Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, B. S. Anangpuria Institute of Pharmacy, Faridabad, Haryana
roopkhar@hotmail.com

Prof. P. M. S. Chauhan Ph.D, FRSC
Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
premsc58@hotmail.com

Prof. Ranjit Singh Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
ranjitsps@gmail.com

Prof. D. K. Jain Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Indore, Madhya Pradesh
jaindkj57@yahoo.com

Prof. Birendra Shrivastava Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan
shrivastava.b@gmail.com

Prof. Debajyoti Das Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
debajyotids@gmail.com

Prof. N. S. Lodhi
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sagar Institute of Research, Technology and Science – Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
ns.lodhi2@gmail.com

Prof. M. D. Kharya Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, Dr. H.S. Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh
profkharya1973@rediffmail.com

Prof. Devender Pathak Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh
dev_15@rediffmail.com

Prof. Atul Kaushik Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Professional Studies, College of Pharmacy, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
abhi_atul2008@rediffmail.com

Prof. Arvind Lumbhani Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Shree Leuva Patel Trust Pharmacy Mahila College, Amreli, Gujarat
arvindlumbhani@yahoo.in

Prof. Umesh Kumar Patil Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, People’s Institute of Pharmacy and Research Centre, People’s University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
umeshpatil29@yahoo.com

Prof. Akhlesh K. Singhai Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Lakshmi Narain College of Pharmacy, Raisen Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
singhaiak@rediffmail.com

Prof. Chandrashekhar D. Upasani Ph.D
Department of Pharmacology, SNJB’s SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Neminagar, Chandwad, Nashik, Maharashtra
cdupasani@rediffmail.com

Prof. Ram Kishore Agrawal Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh
ramkishoreagrawal@gmail.com

Dr. Sunil Kumar Jain D.Sc
Chief Pharmacist, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi
jainsunilkr@hotmail.com

Dr. Surinder Sharma MBBS
Chairman, Haryana State Pharmacy Council, Panchkula, Haryana
esskay.hspc@gmail.com

____________________________________________________

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD

Dr. Kamal Dua Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, International Medical University, Kuala lumpur, Malaysia
kamalpharmacist@rediffmail.com

Dr. Nisha Mary Joseph Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
ritunisha@gmail.com

Dr. Jagroop Dahiya Ph.D
Senior Analyst, Health Canada, Western Region Lab, British Columbia, Canada
jagroopdahiya@gmail.com

Dr. Satish Kumar
Clinical Division, Rural Clinical School, University of Tasmania, Burnie, Australia
satish.kumar@utas.edu.au

Dr. Miguel Xavier Fernandes Ph.D
Centro de Quimica da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Funchal-9000390, Portugal
mxf@uma.pt

Dr. Anil Philip Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman
philipanil23@yahoo.co.in

Dr. Vivek R. Yadav Ph.D, (Post-doc)
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Cytokine Research Laboratory, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Huston TX-77030
vivekyadav78@gmail.com

Dr. Dibyajyoti Saha Ph.D
Department of Pharmacy, Begum Gul Chemonara (BGC) Trust University, Chhitagong, Bangladesh
saha.dibyajyoti@gmail.com

Dr. Vijay Urmaliya Ph.D, Post-doc
Center of Excellence for CVS Safety Research and Mechanistic Pharmacology, Janssen Research and Development, Antwerp, Belgium
vijay.urmaliya@gmail.com

Dr. Faiyaz Sakeel Ph.D
Center of Excellence in Biotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
sakeelfaiyaz@gmail.com

Dr. Firoj Ahmed Ph.D
Department of Pharmacy, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
firoj72@yahoo.com

Dr. Bhupender Singh Ph.D, (Post-doc)
Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, United States
bschhikara@gmail.com
___________________________________________________________________________

EDITORIAL BOARD

Dr. Vipin Kumar Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana
vipbhardwaj@rediffmail.com

Dr. Rashmi Dahima Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Studies in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
dahimarashmi@rediffmail.com

Dr. Vikas Rana Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab
vikas_pbi@rediffmail.com

Dr. Narendra Pratap Sengar Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology – Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
narendrapss@yahoo.co.in

Dr. Dinesh Kumar Mishra Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
dineshdops@gmail.com

Dr. Alok Pal Jain Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, Guru Ramdas Khalsa Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), Barela, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
alokpal@gmail.com

Dr. Harish Kumar Ph.D
Senior Research Scientist, Chemical Research Division, Ranbaxy Laboratory Limited, Gurgoan, Haryana
harish.kumar@ranbaxy.com

Dr. Ameeta Argal Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Rajeev Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Kolar Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
ameetaargal@yahoo.com

Dr. Manoj Kumar Ph.D
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Section, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
manoj_uips@pu.ac.in

Dr. Radha Ballabh Goswami Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, Sagar Institute of Research, Technology and Science – Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
drrbgoswami@yahoo.com

Dr. Upendra Nagaich Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Bharat Institute of Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh
upendra_nagaich@hotmail.com

Dr. Sharad Wakode Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, DIPSAR, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi
sharadwakode@rediffmail.com

Dr. Anupam Sharma Ph.D
Pharmacognosy Section, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh
ans1959@rediffmail.com

Dr. Mohan Lal Kori Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, RKDF University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
mohanlalkori@gmail.com

Dr. Surajit Kumar Ghosh Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam
ghoshksurajit@gmail.com

Dr. Sushama Talegaonkar Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi
stalegaonkar@gmail.com

Dr. Prabodh Chander Sharma Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana
sharma_prabodh@rediffmail.com

Dr. Khushwant Yadav Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Rajeev Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
khush.yadav@gmail.com

Dr. A. Muralidhar Rao Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Maheshwara Institute of Pharmacy, Chitkul, Patancheru, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
muralidhar1999@gmail.com

Dr. Shivani Devaliya Ph.D
Department of Pharmacognosy, Lakshmi Narain College of Pharmacy, Raisen Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
shiva_vdy@rediffmail.com

Dr. Saurabh Kumar Banerjee Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, NMIMS University, Shirpur, Maharashtra
saurabhk77@gmail.com

Dr. Parul D. Mehta Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Lakshmi Narain College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
parulmehta1@rediffmail.com

Dr. Archana S. Mehrotra Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Oriental College of Pharmacy and Research, Oriental University, Indore, Madhya Pradesh
archana.mehrotra@rediffmail.com

Dr. Sunil Kumar Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana
sunilmadhuban@yahoo.com

Dr. Jitender Kumar Malik Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Lakshmi Narain College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
jitender_malik@hotmail.com

Dr. Palnati Narmada Ph.D
Manager, Natco Research Centre, Sanathnagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
narmadapalnati@gmail.com

Dr. Ashok Dashora Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Geetanjali Institute of Pharmacy, Geetanjali University, Udaipur, Rajasthan
ashok.dasora@gmail.com

Dr. Rajani Chauhan Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan
rajanichauhan_pharma@yahoo.com

Dr. Rajesh M. Patel Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, S.K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ganpat University, Kherva, Gujarat
rajmit_120@yahoo.co.in

Dr. Ranganathan Balasubramanian Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Kochi, Kerala
ranga.balasubramanian@gmail.com

Dr. Sumitra Singh Dahiya Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana
sumitra.singh32@gmail.com

Dr. Gurmeet S. Chhabra Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, NMIMS University, Shirpur, Maharashtra
gurmeetchhabra@gmail.com\

Dr. Emdad Hossain Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacy College, Itaura, Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh
emdad@rediffmail.com

Dr. Ravi Nandkishor Tiwari Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, NMIMS University, Shirpur, Maharashtra
ravisun4@rediffmail.com

Dr. Milind Pande Ph.D
Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Manglayatan University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
milindpandey2006@rediffmail.com

Dr. Suman Jain Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Studies in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
dr
sumansuman@gmail.com

Dr. Deepak P. Bhagwat Ph.D
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Himachal Pradesh
bhagwatdeepak@rediffmail.com

Dr. Manoj Sharma Ph.D
Department of Pharmacology, School of Studies in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
manoj_pharmaco@rediffmail.com

Dr. Shailesh Jain Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, VNS Group of Institutions, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
shailesh_tkg@rediffmail.com

Dr. Abhishek Kumar Jain Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
abhi181281@yahoo.com

Dr. Mahaveer Prasad Khinchi Ph.D
Editor-in-Chief, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Kota, Rajasthan
mkhinchi@gmail.com

Dr. Sanjay B. Patil Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, SNJB’s SSDJ College of Pharmacy, Chandwad, Nashik, Maharashtra
sbpatil_99@rediffmail.com

Dr. Neeraj Upmanyu Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, RKDF College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
drneerajupmanyu@gmail.com

Dr. Subha Ganguly Ph.D
Faculty of Fishery Sciences, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata, West Bengal
ganguly38@gmail.com

Dr. Suresh V. Chennupati Ph.D
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, St. Mary’s College of B. Pharmacy, Surampalem, Andhra Pradesh sureshchennupati@rediffmail.com

Dr. B.V. Ramana MBBS, MD
Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
drbvramana@gmail.com

__________________________________________________________________

ASSOCIATE BOARD MEMBERS

Mr. Sanjay Karan (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jharpokharia, Orissa
sanjay_karan21@rediffmail.com

Mr. Rajesh Shukla (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Guru Ramdas Khalsa Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
rajeshshukla2628@gmail.com

Mr. Surender Verma (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of  Pharmaceutical Sciences , Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana
soni2pharma@rediffmail.com

Mr. Sachdev Yadav (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan
sachdev_y@yahoo.com

Mr. Viram Parmar (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Samanvay Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Botad, Bhavnagar, Gujarat
parmar_viram@yahoo.com

Mr. Rajeev Kharb (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab
rajeevkharb_2007@rediffmail.com

Mr. Lokesh Deb (Ph.D)
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur
lokeshdeb.ibsd@nic.in

Mr. Abhay Pratap Yadav (Ph.D)
Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmacy College, Itaura, Chandeshwar, Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh
rejoinabhay5@ymail.com

Mr. Harnish K. Patel M.Pharm
Editor, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bio-Science, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
editorijprbs@gmail.com

Mohd. Rageeb Mohd. Usman (Ph.D)
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy, Smt. Sharadchandrika Suresh Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, Maharashtra
rageebshaikh@gmail.com

__________________________________________________________________



At private schools, a surge of Chinese students EVERETT — Pope John XXIII High School once epitomized the parochial school experience, a concrete building where hundreds of poor Catholic children from Irish and Italian immigrant families sought a new future. For decades, a student from farther away than Malden or Chelsea stood out. ​ Walk through the same doors now, and the tones of Mandarin Chinese bounce off the lockers. International flags fly between stained glass windows in a chapel-turned-dining hall. In one classroom, a crucifix hangs over a bookshelf with a Chinese dictionary — a reminder that almost half the school’s population hails from abroad. Three-quarters of those students come from China. Advertisement Chinese students have flocked to US universities for nearly 40 years. But as that country’s middle class balloons and competition for college acceptance rises, some families aim to jump-start the process by sending children abroad as early as junior high. This influx has spurred a side industry ripe for exploitation and shifted the makeup of secondary schools nationwide, particularly in private-school hubs like New England. cosplay wigsElite boarding schools have found the surge so great that many are attempting to maintain a balance by accepting fewer Chinese. But many day schools, faced with financial pressures, have seized on the opportunity to enroll full-tuition students through partnerships with recruitment agencies, new dorms, and rejiggered curriculums. “This school is not the school that was here in the 1980s,” said Tom Ryan, head of school at Pope John XXIII. Chinese made up 35 percent of the 92,000 foreign secondary school students in the United States in 2015, according to the US Department of Homeland Security, by far the largest group studying here. The number of international students in New England alone rose from more than 9,000 in 2010 to nearly 14,000 last year. International enrollment at the Newman School in the Back Bay shot up from 29 percent to 36 percent in the past five years, with 70 percent of those Chinese. The MacDuffie School in Granby has more than doubled its international population in the past four years, to 160 out of 297 students total.

Advertisement Lexington Christian Academy recently acquired a dormitory, largely for international students who pay $61,860 a year for tuition and housing. In 2011, Pope John XXIII officials converted the school’s fifth-floor convent into a dormitory for foreign students. Tuition there is $9,500 annually, plus about $30,000 for room and board. This new wave of Chinese students, even as they seek educational opportunity, is also more vulnerable because they leave their families at a young age, travel halfway across the world, and juggle the insecurities of teenage years in a country they don’t understand. Some of these so-called parachute kids sink, but many do master a system of teaching much different than they knew, improve their English, diversify traditionally monochrome campuses, and better situate themselves to attend a US university. And yet the transition can feel jarring. “The first day I arrived at my host family’s, I shut the door all day and stayed in my room,” said Ran Yixin, who entered George Stevens Academy in Blue Hill, Maine, as a hesitant 17-year-old sophomore. Then the south China native started watching football games with her host father, joined the cheerleading squad, volunteered at a local church, and became a discerning lobster eater. She graduated last year and now attends Bunker Hill Community College. lace front wigs“You need to be versatile; you can’t be only good at studying,” said Ran, who like many international students, bounced between host families. The desire to attend a US college often drives families, but, like Ran, many also seek to avoid the rigidity of the Chinese education system. Most public school students in China focus their academic career on passing a single test, the national college entrance exam, which is taken in their senior year. Students study long hours, and their score on this test, called the gaokao, determines where they go to college and what majors they pursue. This method, while prized for its rigor, leaves little time for hobbies or self-examination. “The education system in China is quite harmful for personal interest,” said Ran’s father, Ran Qihui, who paid about $46,000 a year for the US private high school. Some Chinese parents worry the American approach, which emphasizes extracurriculars and encourages students to follow their passions, fails to instill the same level of academic skills as the Chinese model. Unless parents can afford to accompany their children, it also tears families apart at the child’s most formative age. “It’s like they start college four years earlier,” said Tracy Ren, a Beijing mother whose son went to Choate Rosemary Hall, the same Connecticut boarding school President John F. Kennedy attended. “If you want to send [your kids abroad] at 14, they’re gone.”

David L Ryan/Globe Staff Ali Fu from China with Priscila Forgione from Lynn work together at Pope John XXIII High School in Everett. Ren helps run a parental support group on WeChat, a popular Chinese social media app, that translates to “Circle of Moms who want to Send their Kids to the US.” It has 50,000 followers. Many of these are parents like Robby Yang, caught between keeping a child nearby and encouraging them to leave. Any reservations the Chinese father had about sending his son abroad ended when the boy started elementary school in Beijing. He noticed that parents were asking the teacher what supplemental material they should buy for their 7-year-olds, in addition to after-school English classes and regular homework. Yang tried to ignore the intensity of his son’s kindergarten, where some of the kids could read novels. But the child would cry because he couldn’t list addition tables or write as many Chinese characters as the others. “This kind of competition is everywhere,” said Yang, who works on the investment side of Pearson, a multinational education and publishing company, and commutes three hours a day so his son can attend a well-regarded school. Schools acknowledge that revenue from these full-paying students motivates their recruitment. Many also hope to cultivate affluent international families into donors. But administrators also say the influx is reshaping classrooms that historically have lacked diversity. “We’re going to end up with a population of students who maybe aren’t so interested in putting a wall around their own country,” said Steven Griffin, head of school at the MacDuffie School. perruques cheveuxAn entire industry, both in the United States and China, has sprung up to funnel young foreign students to American prep schools. Fees can run as high as $50,000 for an agent to guide a family through the admissions process. Many of these businesses make additional profit by housing students in makeshift dorms or placing them with host families. Schools use agents because they believe it lends legitimacy to students’ applications. But it also makes for unusually close partnerships between admissions officers and businesses, with money as a primary incentive.

David L Ryan/Globe Staff Nick Zhou, who is from China, played pool after school ended at Pope John XXIII. “International students are a very lucrative market,” said Xi Zhang, founder of Boston-based FindingSchool.com, a website that provides information in Chinese about US secondary schools. “Although they can claim ‘I want to make sure our student body is diverse,’ lots of schools are doing this for the money.” The MacDuffie School finds 80 percent of its international students through agents, Griffin said. The school pays agents a cut, 10 percent of the $51,000 tuition that schools receive from the family the first year, and 5 percent in subsequent years. Sparhawk School, an Amesbury day school, requires students from China, Vietnam, and Korea to apply through the Cambridge Institute for International Education, a recruiting company whose affiliate operates the school’s new dormitory in nearby Haverhill. The Waltham-based company, founded less than a decade ago, partners with more than 200 private and public high schools and universities, one of the largest agencies of its kind. Although third-party companies assist many families with the unfamiliar process, some also manipulate naive parents eager to see their children succeed. A Chinese parent recently contacted the MacDuffie School to tell the headmaster her family could no longer afford the mandatory $40,000 annual donation. But no such donation rule exists. The family’s agent made up the story, and the school never received the money. With such high stakes — a child’s or a school’s future — the attempts at profiteering go both ways. Lexington Christian Academy, whose student body is 11 percent international, last year asked a Chinese student to leave when, after several warnings, she did not complete her coursework. Her parents flew in and offered the headmaster whatever assistance he needed for her to stay. “Eventually, what I understood they were saying was, ‘How much?’ ” Head of School Timothy Russell said. Students face their own struggles as they confront an unfamiliar setting, often alone and with limited English skills. Pope John XXIII sits across the street from a Dunkin’ Donuts and the Rt. perruques cheveux naturels99 Smoke Shop, between a convenience store and a nail salon. Some Chinese find suburban America a lonely transition from the crowded streets and flashy high-rises of Beijing and Shanghai. Augustine Wong, a Hong Kong transplant who attends the Newman School in the Back Bay, called the quiet West Roxbury neighborhood where his host family lives “gloomy.”

To help foreign students assimilate, schools sometimes require them to play sports or join clubs. The influence works in both directions: Chinese New Year has become a commonly feted holiday. But lunchrooms tell another story, often divided along cultural lines. During a recent morning assembly at the Newman School, many Asian students grouped together on one side of the room. A few never escape that bubble, making it difficult to ever really fit in. And, every so often, something goes terribly wrong. remy hair extensionsThree Chinese high school students in Southern California made headlines earlier this year for allegedly stripping another Chinese girl, burning her with cigarettes, and forcing her to eat her own hair. One of the student’s lawyers linked their actions to loneliness and the lack of parental supervision. Such behaviors are rare. But students can find themselves squeezed between expectations of American teachers and pressure from parents unfamiliar with a Western education system. George Becker, a world history teacher at Pope John XXIII, says that many Chinese students arrive tired to first period because they stay up late to Skype with their parents. Some sleep for a few hours, get up around 1 a.m. to talk, then go back to sleep, he said. Becker struggles to keep students with limited English skills engaged. He spends much of the first semester reinforcing the importance of participating in class and voicing opinions — skills that aren’t always encouraged in traditional Chinese schools. “I’m constantly thinking about making sure they understand this, or how can I connect this to something where they’re from,” Becker said. The increase in foreign students also affects how and what schools teach. Sparhawk School runs a course to prepare students for the English-language exam they must take to attend US universities, and it has trained its teachers on cultural differences between US and Chinese experiences. MacDuffie School offers an international diploma for foreign students who don’t meet the regular requirements for graduation. Lexington Christian Academy developed a special English-language learning program that some students attend before enrolling at the academy or at another secondary school. “You’re actually, in a way, changing the school,” said Peter Upham, executive director of The Association of Boarding Schools.

While the surge in international students brings more diversity of thought, it also threatens to shift the demographics too far in one direction, Upham said. His association has started a national campaign to encourage boarding schools to enroll more domestic students — 2,020 more by the year 2020. Meanwhile, the region’s elite prep schools, with their larger endowments, face less pressure to recruit international students. Enrolling too many foreign students can backfire, said Chris Blondin, associate admissions director at Governor’s Academy in Byfield, which has 17 Chinese students out of 400 total. Chinese families aren’t attracted to schools that look too much like home, he said. pre bonded hairDeerfield Academy counts about 20 Chinese in its student body of 635. The school has watched the number of Chinese applications drop as families learn that it admits just one student for every 12 applicants and does not have an English-language learning program. In coming years, the Newman School aims to reverse strategy and recruit more US students. Headmaster Harry Lynch is proud of Newman’s global reputation, but he frequently hears that the school is not well-known in Boston. Lynch sat in his office one recent afternoon surrounded by stacks of American textbooks. The bell rang and students from around the world raced past his open door to class. “When I look at the future of the school,” Lynch said, “it has to rebalance.” Laura Krantz can be reached at laura.krantz@globe.com. Jessica Meyers can be reached at jessica.meyers@globe.com.